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Color Gem Guide Michigan


Amethyst
Gem Guide
Amethyst is purple quartz and is one of the most popular gemstones. It varies from pale lavender to deep purple with red highlights. Amethyst is generally abundant and quite inexpensive. Amethyst is purple, lilac or mauve. The highest quality is transparent. It has a hardness of 7.
Aquamarine
Gem Guide
Aquamarine is light blue, blue-green and dark blue. The highest quality is transparent. It has a hardness of 7.5.
Aquamarine often becomes paler if left out in the sun.
Citrine
Gem Guide
Citrine is yellow to brown quartz. It varies from pale yellow to rich golden yellow to dark orange. Although citrine may occur naturally, much is produced by heating amethyst under controlled conditions.
Darker colors are more highly prized, including medium golden orange ("Rio Grande" citrine) and dark sherry-colored ("Madeira" citrine).
Diamonds
Gem Guide
Diamonds are slightly yellowish, and in this general color range, those most approaching absolute lack of color are most prized. However, brightly colored diamonds are much rarer and more expensive. The deep blue Hope diamond and blue Eugenie diamond, both in the Smithsonian collection, are among the most famous examples. It has a hardness of 10.
Emeralds
Gem Guide
Emeralds are medium to dark green beryl which derives its color from chromium and vanadium. Emerald has a hardness rating of 7.5. of fine color and clarity can be quite expensive. The best known sources include Colombia, Zambia. Almost all emeralds contain numerous small inclusions and fractures that promote fragility. Most stones on the market are impregnated with oils, waxes, or other substances to mask the fractures and sometimes enhance color.
Garnets
Gem Guide
Garnets usually dark brownish to purplish red usually cut in small sizes (under 2 carats), as larger stones appear black. Garnet ranges in color from colorless to black though it is often thought of as only red. There are various types of garnet with the hardness ranging from 7 - 7.5.
Jade
Gem Guide
There are two types of Jade: Jadeite and Nephrite. Jadeite is rarer and the highest quality is known as imperial Jade. Jadeite comes in many colors: red, yellow, green, lilac, black, orange, white, pink, blue and brown. Jadeite has a hardness of 7. Nephrite Jade is more common and is often used in Chinese carvings. Nephrite Jade comes in various tones of green -- mostly with an olive green tone. It has a hardness of 6.5.
Onyx
Gem Guide
Onyx is a rich-looking, affordable black stone. It is often mixed with pearls to create elegant jewelry. Onyx, sard, and sardonyx are all varieties of chalcedony (microcrystaline quartz). Onyx comes in brown, white, grey, and black. Sard is a reddish-brown variety. Sardonyx is a blend of sard and onyx with the red bands of sard and the white bands of onyx. Onyx, sard and sardonyx all have a hardness rating of 7.
Opal
Gem Guide
Opal in large sizes are rare and costly, especially black opal. Usually cut as cabochons, sometimes beads. Occasionally found as fossilized (opalized) clamshells, snail shells, or wood. Transparent opals, such as Mexican red or orange fire opal, are often faceted. Values are normally determined by the presence and nature of color flashes (play of color). Opal's scratch hardness is measured at 6.0 to 6.5 on the Mohs' scale, similar in hardness to quartz, a little more than halfway between the hardness of talc and diamond.
Pearls
Gem Guide
Pearls are formed in shellfish, as a reactant to an irritant such as a piece of sand. Cultured pearls are created by adding a piece of mussel or shell inside of an oyster of mussel. This then creates a pearl as layers of the inside of the shell grow over the added substance. The price of pearls vary widely as a result of luster, size, how they were grown, color and type. Natural pearls are the most expensive, followed by cultured pearls. Fresh water pearls tend to be relatively inexpensive. Pearls are generally white, brown, silver, cream, black or pink depending on the type of shellfish and water. Pearl has a hardness of 3.
Peridot
Gem Guide
Peridot is a transparent lime or olive green. It has a hardness of 6.5. As with all gems, protect peridot from scratches and sharp blows. Also avoid large temperature changes (such as leaving it be a heater vent or in a hot car). Do not clean peridot in a home ultrasonic cleaner.
Ruby
Gem Guide
Ruby may be any color of red depending on the chromium and iron content of the stone. Ruby has a hardness rating of 9. Generally, ruby is quite durable. Still, rubies are subject to chipping and fracture if handled roughly. Ruby is found worldwide. The finest stones are from Myanmar. Bright red stones are mined in: Afganistan, Pakistan, Vietnam. Brownish-red rubies are from Thailand. Darker stones are generally produced from the mines in Australia, India, Russia and USA (Georgia, North Carolina and Wyoming).
Sapphire
Gem Guide
All gem quality corundum that is not red is called sapphire such as blue, orange, yellow, violet, green, white and pink. Unless a color is stated, sapphire is assumed to be blue. Some sapphires (color change sapphires) will change between blue and violet depending on the light. Sapphire has a hardness of 9. Generally, sapphire is quite durable. Still, sapphires are subject to chipping and fracture is handled roughly.
Tanzanite
Gem Guide
Tanzanite may be blue, purple or slate gray. Tanzanite has a hardness rating of 6.5. Tanzanite is often heat treated to improve its color and clarity. Tanzanite can easily be scratched or chipped. Clean your Tanzanite with warm, soapy water and a soft bristle brush. Avoid using ultrasonic cleaning.
Topaz
Gem Guide
Topaz comes in many colors such as blue, yellow, pink, brown, green and clear. Orange-red "Imperial" topaz is rare. Topaz has a hardness of 8. As with all gems, protect topaz from scratches and sharp blows.
Tourmaline
Gem Guide
Tourmaline comes in many colors such as blue, yellow, pink, red, black, green and clear. It has a hardness of 7.5. As with all gems, protect tourmaline from scratches and sharp blows.
Zircon
Gem Guide
Zircon is a natural stone - not to be confused with Cubic Zirconia which is manmade. It is known as a colorless stone used to imitate diamonds but also comes in: blue, yellow, orange, red, brown and green . It has a hardness of 7.5. Zircon is somewhat soft so avoid scratches and sharp blows. Avoid hot water and household chemicals.
 
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Hacker Jewelers, Designers & Goldsmiths, Inc.
110 East Chicago Boulevard     Tecumseh, MI 49286
Phone: (517) 423-6370     Fax: (517) 423-5510
Store Hours are:
Tuesday - Friday: 10 am - 5:30 pm Saturday: 9 am - 2 pm

 
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